Studies in recent years have found that gender is an important factor affecting career advancement both in the public and private sectors. However, existing gender studies on Taiwanese civil servants have never been conducted based on survey results targeting all Taiwanese civil servants as the population. This paper intends to perform evidence based analysis using survey data collected from the Taiwan Government Bureaucrat Survey (TGBS) in order to better understand how gender differences have affected the promotion of public officials in Taiwan. Based on the results of the crosstabs, t-tests, ANOVA, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses, both of the hypotheses have been accepted. It is found that gender differences affect the seniority, level of education, the officials’ reasons for entering public service, and the officials’ desire to work. It is also found that these four factors have impacts on both the officials’ current ranking and the length of time the officials have been in their current position. However, it should be noted that the factors of human capital, including seniority and the level of education, have a greater impact on both the officials’ current ranking and the time they have been in their current position.