The core issue of cross-Strait relations lies in the debate over sovereignty. This study targets Mainland Chinese students studying in Taiwan for a short period of time as research subjects. Through questionnaires, the impact of political attitudes on the acceptance of Taiwanese sovereignty is investigated. This study’s research findings show that the acceptance of Taiwanese sovereignty by Mainland Chinese students studying in Taiwan is generally low with a mean of 1.63. Among the factors influencing the acceptance of Taiwanese sovereignty by Mainland Chinese students, favorable attitudes towards the Taiwan government, external political efficacy, and political trust are deemed to be the most important. According to this study, to protect Taiwanese sovereignty, the government should encourage more Mainland Chinese students to come to Taiwan rather than refusing them admittance. However, complementary measures should be developed to increase favorable attitudes towards the Taiwan government and to decrease external political efficacy and political trust in Mainland China’s government by Mainland Chinese students.